Possible cover for the Collins edition (due 2015). This book is a sequel to Vol I, Non-Passerines by Jorge R. Rodriguez Mata, Francisco Erze and Maurice Rumboll
N1-Voor-S.Am
This double page spread gives an idea of how the plates, text and maps will be combined in the new book
N2-Open-SAm

This BLUE-BACKED TANAGER is unmistakable; there is no other bird in this region with red eyes and this blue and yellow colour pattern
N3a

Birds like these 6 species (and there are many more tapaculos) are so similar that you need their distribution maps to identify them. The voice is a good ID feature but not very easy to describe in a book, especially one written by a Dutchman for English-speaking people


SANTA MARTA TAPACULO
N3b

N3b2
LONG-TAILED TAPACULO
N3c

N3c2
RUFOUS-VENTED TAPACULO
N3d

N3d2

WHITE-CROWNED TAPACULO
N3e

BOLIVIAN TAPACULO
N3f

UPPER MAGDALENA TAPACULO
N3h


WHAT ARE PASSERINES? This subclass of birds is distinguished from non-passerines by the construction of their song organ (hence the alternative name: songbirds); also by the design of their feet, with 3 toes pointing forwards and 1 backwards, which can be locked around a perch when resting/sleeping (hence the name perching birds)
THE LARYNX
N3m Larynx

Humans and (other) mammals produce sound in their Larynx, an organ at the top of the windpipe. Air is pressed through a slit between vocal cords (VC) forcing them to vibrate.

A = windpipe, B = Oesophagus, C – valve between A and B, T = tongue

THE SYRINX
N3n Syrinx

Birds produce sound in their Syrinx, an organ much deeper in the chest, where the windpipe (A) splits in two long pipes (P). In this soundbox there are labia (L, lips) whose form and tension is regulated by an inflatable air sac (S) and a system of paired muscles (M 1-4). Songbirds (or passerines) have a system of 4-7 muscles. Non-passerines have either none or 1-3 pairs of muscles. Note that many birds can produce sound in both lung pipes, producing different notes at the same time